DecNef Realtime MRI
Data from 5 realtime decoded neurofeedback experiments.



The dataset contains the following files, divided by studies

1) Brain imaging dataset (.nii.gz)
– T1w, fmri (reference scan, functional scans), ROI mask

2) Preprocessed data (.csv)
- motion parameters, neurofeedback scores, voxels’ coordinates, voxels' activity patterns, weights, labels

3) Participants demographic



Please refer to our published papers for details on the studies such as MRI protocols.

Study 1: Shibata et al. (2016) Differential Activation Patterns in the Same Brain Region Led to Opposite Emotional States. PLoS Biol 14(9): e1002546 Link

Study 2: Amano et al. (2016) Learning to Associate Orientation with Color in Early Visual Areas by Associative Decoded fMRI Neurofeedback. Current Biology Link

Study 3: Koizumi et al. (2016) Fear reduction without fear through reinforcement of neural activity that bypasses conscious exposure. Nat Hum Behav 1, 0006 Link

Study 4: Cortese et al. (2016) Multivoxel neurofeedback selectively modulates confidence without changing perceptual performance. Nat Commun 7, 13669 Link

Study 5: Taschereau-Dumouchel et al. (2018) Towards an unconscious neural reinforcement intervention for common fears. PNAS 115, 3470-75 Link


Name File Size Data
Study1 27.7GB
Study2 15.4GB
Study3 11.5GB
Study4 14.8GB
Study5 17.4GB

History of update

  • (2020-12-14) Study1,2,3,4,5 Data updated.
  • (2020-11-11) Study3 Data updated.
  • (2020-11-2) Study2, 3, 5 Data updated.
  • (2019-12-5) Data released.


How to download the data

We invite investigators to apply for access to this dataset. Before applying, please read the privacy statement (note that we collect the number of applicants and the number of downloads from the database for reports to the DecNef Project, without private information). The brain data is available exclusively for the purposes of scientific research, technology development, and education under the auspices of an academic, research, government or commercial entity. To apply, please fill in the registration form and upload an "Application Form for Data Usage", duly filled and signed. You may upload your signature as a separate image file.

You will be notified by email about how to access the dataset, where you may log in and download data to your computer. If you have any questions about the brain data, please contact us by email (

NOTE: i) everyone who works with these data must review and agree to these terms, including those who are accessing shared copies of this data. If you are sharing data, please advise your co-researchers that they must register with these data repositories and agree to these terms.

Privacy Statement

The member of the DecNef Brain Database Project takes privacy very seriously, whether dealing with participants data or the data of those visiting this website.

The participant data from our research into the DecNef Brain Data Repository that is stored in our database system is de-identified, and contains no personal health information.

When you register on our website, we will ask for your personal information, such as name, e-mail address, and so on. The use of information collected through our services shall be limited to the purpose of providing the service for which our customer has engaged us.

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By using the DecNef Brain Data Repository, you signify your agreement to our privacy policy as stated above. Note that this policy may be revised periodically without notice. Please re-read this privacy prior to submitting any personal information if you have concerns about how your information is being collected and used.