DecNef Realtime MRI
Data from 6 realtime decoded neurofeedback experiments.



The dataset contains the following files, divided by studies

1) Brain imaging dataset
- EPI functional images (NIFTI)
- T1-weighted structural image (NIFTI)
- neurofeedback scores (mat)
- pre-selected voxels activity patterns, real-time preprocessed (mat)

2) Participant demographic information
- Excel file

- README.txt (Explanation of dataset and demographic information)


Please refer to our published papers for details on the studies such as MRI protocols.

Study 1: Shibata et al. (2011) Perceptual learning incepted by decoded fMRI neurofeedback without stimulus presentation. Science 334(6061):1413-5 Link

Study 2: Shibata et al. (2016) Differential Activation Patterns in the Same Brain Region Led to Opposite Emotional States. PLoS Biol 14(9): e1002546 Link

Study 3: Amano et al. (2016) Learning to Associate Orientation with Color in Early Visual Areas by Associative Decoded fMRI Neurofeedback. Current Biology Link

Study 4: Koizumi et al. (2016) Fear reduction without fear through reinforcement of neural activity that bypasses conscious exposure. Nat Hum Behav 1, 0006 Link

Study 5: Cortese et al. (2016) Multivoxel neurofeedback selectively modulates confidence without changing perceptual performance. Nat Commun 7, 13669 Link

Study 6: Taschereau-Dumouchel et al. (2018) Towards an unconscious neural reinforcement intervention for common fears. PNAS 115, 3470-75 Link


Name File Size Data
Study1 26.2GB
Study2 29.4GB
Study3 15.4GB
Study4 21.6GB
Study5 14.8GB
Study6 25.9GB

History of update

  • (2020-4-6) Study2, 3, 4, 6 Data released.
  • (2019-12-5) Data released.


How to download the data

We invite investigators to apply for access to these data. Before applying your request, please read the privacy statement. Note that we collect number of applicants, number of data downloading from the database for reports to DecNef Project at some moment without private information. The brain data is allowed to use for noncommercial purpose only. You fill in the registration form and upload an "Application Form for Data Usage", after filling your information and requirement. You need to sign the application form. You can upload an image (or photo) file of your signature separately.

You will be notified by email about how to access the dataset, where you may log in and download data to your computer. If you have any questions about the brain data, please contact us by email (

NOTE: i) everyone who works with these data must review and agree to these terms, including those who are accessing shared copies of this data. If you are sharing data, please advise your co-researchers that they must register with these data repositories and agree to these terms.

Privacy Statement

The member of the DecNef Brain Database Project takes privacy very seriously, whether dealing with participants data or the data of those visiting this website.

The participant data from our research into the DecNef Brain Data Repository that is stored in our database system is de-identified, and contains no personal health information.

When you register on our website, we will ask for your personal information, such as name, e-mail address, and so on. The use of information collected through our services shall be limited to the purpose of providing the service for which our customer has engaged us.

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This website contains links to other websites, whose content we think is relevant. However, DecNef Brain Database website is not responsible for maintaining or updating the content of these other sites. If any of these sites are found to contain irrelevant or offensive information, please contact us.

By using the DecNef Brain Data Repository, you signify your agreement to our privacy policy as stated above. Note that this policy may be revised periodically without notice. Please re-read this privacy prior to submitting any personal information if you have concerns about how your information is being collected and used.